Salmonella is identified in the 1800s and named after the person who discovered this bacteria. Each year millions of salmonellosis cases are registered and are the causes of 100 000 related death.


Salmonella is identified in the 1800s and named after the person who discovered this bacteria. Over 2500 types of these bacteria exist. Salmonella is a common cause of foodborne illnesses. Most human diseases related to salmonella are caused by the subspecies belonging to Salmonella enterica. Each year millions of salmonellosis cases are registered and are the causes of 100 000 related death.

Salmonella bacteria is the root of 2 types of illness:

  • Typhoid Salmonellosis: Typhoid fever- caused by S. Typhi (only in humans) and Paratyphoid fever- Caused by S. Paratyphi A, B, or C.                                   
  • Non-Typhoid Salmonellosis: Caused by S. Enteritidis, S. Newport, S. Typhimurium


Reservoirs & Transmission

Some pets, like turtles and other reptiles, and chicks, can be the source of salmonella. They can spread the pathogen in the environment.



Salmonella Symptoms

Salmonella causes two types of disease: The first type of illness is gastrointestinal. This form displays gastrointestinal symptoms which last for a couple of days. If healthy people ingest the infectious bacteria, the symptoms go away by themselves, but they may develop arthritis. The food linked to this type of salmonella is meat, fruits, vegetables, spices, and nuts. The second type of illness is typhoidal illness and displays high fever, diarrhea, constipation (sometimes), headache, drowsiness, and sometimes a rash. The typhoidal illness is a serious condition and could have lethal outcomes if the individual does not seek medical treatment. The typhoidal illness is linked to sewage, contaminated drinking water, or crops irrigated with sewage or contaminated water. 


Typhoid Salmonellosis Symptoms

Non-Typhoid Salmonellosis Symptoms

Non-Typhoid Salmonellosis- Caused by S. Enteritidis, S. Newport, S. Typhimurium


Fluids and minerals loss are the results of diarrhea and vomiting. This can be the cause of death in the very young people, the elderly, and people with vulnerable immune systems. In some cases, the reaction and response to the inflammation can cause arthritis. 

Who is Susceptible & at Risk?


Who is at Risk?

  • Travelers
  • Animal contact including reptiles and amphibians
  • Consumption or handling of raw or undercooked poultry
  • Consumption of pre-cooked or frozen chicken products
  • Consumption of unwashed fruits and vegetables
  • Consumption of contaminated water
  • Close contact with infected people

Prevention/ Food Handling/ Hand Washing

Keep Clean: Wash your hands before, during and after handling food. Wash utensils, cutting boards, and any surfaces that food touches after each use. Wash fruits and veggies—but not meat, poultry, or eggs. Never cook ill.

Separate Raw and Cooked: Use separate cutting boards, plates, and utensils for raw (uncooked) produce and for raw (uncooked) meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs. Keep meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs separate from all other foods while shopping and in the refrigerator.

Refrigeration: Refrigerate eggs promptly.

Cook Thoroughly and Keep Food at Safe Temperature: Only a food thermometer can make sure meat, poultry, fish, and casseroles are cooked to a safe internal temperature. For example, internal temperatures should be 145°F or 63°C for whole meats (allow the meat to rest after cooking for 3 minutes at least) and fish, 160°F or 71°C for ground meats, and 165°F or 74°C for all poultry. Eggs should be cooked until the yolk is firm.

Chill: Use appliance thermometers to be sure your refrigerator is at or below 40ºF or  4°C and your freezer is 0ºF (-17.78°C) or below. Between 40ºF or 4°C and 140ºF or 60°, C is the Danger Zone, when bacteria can multiply rapidly. Generally, the more bacteria, the more likely someone will get sick. Most refrigerators have just a colder/ warmer adjustment, so the only way to know is to put a thermometer inside.

Use Safe Water and Raw Material: Always use safe water or treat it before use. Use wholesome and fresh materials.

Hand Washing

  • Before, during, and after preparing food
  • Before eating food
  • Before and after caring for someone at home who is sick with vomiting or diarrhea
  • Before and after treating a cut or wound
  • After using the toilet
  • After blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing
  • After touching an animal, animal feed, or animal waste
  • After handling pet food or pet treats
  • After touching garbage
  • Use Hand Sanitizer When You Can’t Use Soap and Water. Sanitizers can quickly reduce the number of germs on hands in many situations. Keep in mind, that sanitizers do not kill all types of germs. If your hands are visibly dirty, soap them then use a sanitizer. They also might not remove chemicals, pesticides, and heavy metals from your hands.

The presented information is an extract from the Guidelines for the Investigation and Control of Disease Outbreaks. Porirua: Institute of Environmental
Science & Research Limited; Updated 2011