Rectal Cancer 4 Stages
Rectal Cancer 4 Stages
Rectal cancer 4 stages define the type of the patient’s treatment. Hence, different types of treatments are available for patients with rectal cancer. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials.
Rectal Cancer 4 Stages - Rectal Cancer Treatment Options by Stage
- Chemotherapy combined with radiation therapy, followed by surgery.
- Short-course radiation therapy followed by surgery and chemotherapy.
- Resection followed by chemotherapy combined with radiation therapy.
- Chemotherapy combined with radiation therapy, followed by active surveillance. Surgery may be done if the cancer recurs (comes back).
- A clinical trial of a new treatment.
- Surgery with or without chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
- Systemic chemotherapy with or without targeted therapy (angiogenesis inhibitor).
- Systemic chemotherapy with or without immunotherapy (immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy).
- Chemotherapy to control the growth of the tumor.
- Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of both, as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve the quality of life.
- Placement of a stent to help keep the rectum open if it is partly blocked by the tumor, as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve the quality of life.
- Clinical trials of chemotherapy and/or targeted therapy.
- Treatment for areas of cancer that have spread to the liver includes the following:
Today, when people are diagnosed with cancer, they usually receive the same treatment as others who have the same type and stage of cancer. Even so, different people may respond differently, and, until recently, doctors didn’t know why. After decades of research, scientists now understand that patients’ tumors have genetic changes that cause cancer to grow and spread. They have also learned that the changes that occur in one person’s cancer may not occur in others who have the same type of cancer. And, the same cancer-causing changes may be found in different types of cancer.
Precision medicine helps doctors select treatments that are most likely to help patients based on a genetic understanding of their disease. In Precision Medicine, patients that share the same genetic changes (mutations) receive the same medicine or treatment. Using those genetic changes, health care providers can provide more precise treatment is known as precision medicine.
Even though researchers are making progress every day, the precision medicine approach to cancer treatment is not yet part of routine care for most patients. Many new treatments designed to target a specific change are being tested right now in precision medicine clinical trials. Some clinical trials are accepting patients with specific types and stages of cancer. Others accept patients with a variety of cancer types and stages. However, to be eligible for precision medicine trials, the patient’s tumor must have a genetic change that can be targeted by a treatment that has been tested.
Precision medicine hopes that treatments will one day be tailored to the genetic changes in each person’s cancer. Scientists see a future when genetic tests will help decide which treatments a patient’s tumor is most likely to respond to, sparing the patient from receiving treatments that are not likely to help. Research studies are going on now to test whether treating patients with treatments that target the cancer-causing genetic changes in their tumors, no matter where cancer develops in the body, will help them. Many of these treatments are drugs known as targeted therapies. There are drugs that have been proven effective against cancers with specific genetic changes and are approved by the FDA.
The information contained on this website is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If you have any questions or concerns about your health, you should always consult a qualified healthcare professional. Cannabidiol (CBD) and other cannabis plant constituents should not be used as a substitute for conventional medical care. CBD and other cannabis plant constituents may interfere with medical treatment.
PDQ® Adult Treatment Editorial Board. PDQ Rectal Cancer Treatment. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Updated <10/02/2019>. Available at: https://www.cancer.gov/types/colorectal/patient/rectal-treatment-pdq. Accessed <12/12/2019>. [PMID: 26389378]